Division of Anatomy and Embryology, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
Received date: July 25, 2017; Accepted date: August 22, 2017; Published date: August 25, 2017
Citation: Ahmed RG (2017) Hypothyroidism and Brain Development. J Anim Res Nutr Vol. 2 No. 2:13. doi: 10.21767/2572-5459.100033
Copyright: © 2017 Ahmed RG. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Thyroid hormones (THs) are central for the development of all biological systems Abalovich et al., El-bakry et al., Ahmed et al., Ahmed and Incerpi, Van Herck et al., Deepti et al., El-Ghareeb et al., Ahmed and El-Gareib and Caty et al. [1-4]. A moderate iodine deficiency causes maternal hypothyroxinemia, congenital hypothyroidism, preterm birth and mental retardation. Hypothyroidism during the development caused the following. Reduced the myelination of neuronal axons altered the dendritic structure cortical pyramidal cell [5-8]. Thompson and Potter reduced the Purkinje cell dendritic arborizations, the parallel fiber outgrowth and migration of the granule cells, and the number of granule cells diminished the synaptogenesis altered the molecular, morphological and functional actions of hippocampus and delayed the hypothalamic-pituitary development. Generally, THs deficiency during the early developmental period might delay the neuronal differentiation, decrease the neuronal connectivity, impair the motor skills and visual processing, and cause severe and permanent brain damage or mental retardation. Thus, these adverse effects may facilitate directly by a loss of the maternal THs contribution to the fetus or indirectly by the metabolic impairment of gestation, or both [9-12].
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