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Functional Significance of DNA in Animal Science

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical structures that can be formed in DNA and RNA sequences which carry four short runs of guanines. They are distributed in the whole genome but are enriched in gene promoter regions, gene UTRs and chromosome telomeres. The entire spectrum of their functional functions is not yet completely explored, but there is clear evidence supporting their involvement in a variety of processes, including transcription control, replication, telomere organization, among others. There has been an increased interest in research for G4s over the last decade that has led to a deeper understanding of their function in many physiological and pathways. On the other hand, in plant species and animals of agricultural interest, these mechanisms are poorly studied. Here, we summarize the existing methods used to study G4s, analyze plant and farm animal studies, and address the benefits of a more rigorous inclusion of G4 research in the agricultural sciences.



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