Impact of Nutritional Strategies on Poultry Health and Productivity

Ahmed Fazar*

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria


Ahmed Fazar*

Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Douglas Ahmed
Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,

Received date: March 08, 2024, Manuscript No. IPJARN-24-19172; Editor assigned date: March 11, 2024, PreQC No. IPJARN-24-19172 (PQ); Reviewed date: March 25, 2024, QC No. IPJARN-24-19172; Revised date: April 01, 2024, Manuscript No. IPJARN-24-19172 (R); Published date: April 08, 2024, DOI: 10.36648/2572-5459.9.2.125

Citation: Ahmed D (2024) Impact of Nutritional Strategies on Poultry Health and Productivity. J Anim Res Nutr Vol.9 No.2: 125.

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Poultry nutrition plays a vital role in the health and productivity of poultry flocks. Whether raised for meat or eggs, proper nutrition ensures optimal growth, disease resistance and reproductive performance. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the intricacies of poultry nutrition, covering essential nutrients, dietary requirements and feeding strategies to maximize the well-being and performance of poultry.

Essential nutrients for poultry

Poultry diets must contain adequate levels of high-quality protein to support growth, feather development and egg production. Protein is composed of amino acids, with essential amino acids being those that poultry cannot synthesize and must obtain from their diet. Methionine, lysine and threonine are among the crucial amino acids for poultry. Balanced protein sources such as soybean meal, fish meal and meat and bone meal are commonly used in poultry feeds to meet their protein requirements. Carbohydrates serve as a major energy source in poultry diets. Grains like corn, wheat and barley are rich sources of carbohydrates and provide energy for vital physiological functions such as maintenance, movement and egg formation. However, excessive reliance on carbohydrates with high levels of Non-Starch Polysaccharides (NSPs) can lead to digestive issues in poultry, emphasizing the importance of balanced carbohydrate sources in feed formulations.

Dietary fats are essential for poultry as concentrated sources of energy and carriers of fat-soluble vitamins. Fat supplementation in poultry diets improves feed efficiency and supports feathering, especially in young birds. Common fat sources include vegetable oils, animal fats and by-products from oilseed processing. However, careful consideration must be given to the fatty acid profile to avoid imbalances that may impact poultry health and performance. Vitamins play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including immunity, bone development and reproduction. Fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E and K are vital for poultry health, while water-soluble vitamins like B-complex vitamins (B12, riboflavin) are essential for metabolic functions and nervous system health. Poultry diets must be formulated to meet the specific vitamin requirements of different life stages and production purposes [1-5].

Minerals are essential for skeletal development, enzyme function and acid-base balance in poultry. Calcium and phosphorus are critical minerals for bone formation and eggshell quality, while others like sodium, potassium and magnesium play roles in nerve function and muscle contraction. Trace minerals such as zinc, copper and selenium are required in small amounts but are indispensable for immune function and antioxidant defense. Balancing mineral levels in poultry diets is crucial to prevent deficiencies or toxicities that can compromise bird health and performance. Starter diets are formulated to meet the high protein and energy requirements of young chicks during the first few weeks of life. These diets typically contain finely ground ingredients to facilitate digestion and nutrient absorption in young, developing digestive systems. Additionally, starter diets may include additives like probiotics and enzymes to support gut health and nutrient utilization.

Poultry nutrition

As poultry mature, their nutritional requirements change, with reduced protein levels and increased energy densities in grower and finisher diets. These diets aim to promote efficient growth and muscle development while minimizing excess fat deposition. Formulating grower and finisher diets requires careful consideration of nutrient density, feed presentation and environmental factors to optimize flock performance and profitability.

Layer diets are specifically formulated to meet the nutritional needs of laying hens for sustained egg production and shell quality. These diets typically contain higher levels of calcium and phosphorus to support eggshell formation, along with adequate levels of essential amino acids and vitamins for optimal reproductive performance. Additionally, additives such as xanthophyllsa may be included to enhance yolk color in eggs destined for premium markets. Broiler diets are designed to maximize growth rate, feed efficiency and meat yield in commercial meat chicken production. These diets are typically higher in protein and energy compared to layer diets, with formulations tailored to rapid muscle growth and efficient nutrient utilization. Feed additives such as growth promoters, coccidiostats and phytogenic compounds may be incorporated to enhance performance and health outcomes in broiler flocks. Poultry nutrition is a complex and dynamic field that requires careful attention to the nutritional requirements of different poultry species, life stages and production systems. By understanding the essential nutrients, dietary requirements and feeding strategies outlined in this guide, poultry producers can optimize flock health, productivity and profitability in an everevolving agricultural landscape [6-8].

Many desert-dwelling mammals, such as kangaroo rats and fennec foxes, exhibit nocturnal behavior to avoid the daytime heat. They spend the hot hours in burrows or shaded areas and are active during the cooler nights. Additionally, some species use behavioral adaptations such as seeking shade, lying on cool surfaces, or spreading saliva on their fur to enhance evaporative cooling [9,10].

Anatomical features such as large ears, long limbs and specialized nasal passages also aid in thermoregulation. Large ears, as seen in the fennec fox, increase the surface area for heat dissipation. Long limbs help elevate the body above the hot ground, reducing heat gain from the surface. Specialized nasal passages, found in species like camels, facilitate the conservation of water during respiration while still allowing for effective heat loss through panting.


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